What is sugar Exactly?
The first thing anyone needs to know about when learning about the effects of sugar is to understand just what sugar is – i.e., what the different types of sugar are. “Sugar” usually refers to white sugar, which is a process sugar from sugar cane or sugar beets. All sugars are carbohydrates, so you might sometimes here sugar referred to as a “simple carbohydrate”.
The technical name for common sugar is sucrose, which is actually two "simple sugars" (monosaccharides) stuck together (fructose and glucose). For a great overview of fructose vs. glucose vs. sucrose, see this article. The long and short of it is this: